What is the proportion of SC/ST/OBC/General Category in Karnataka?

For a very long time, I wanted to investigate on what is the real population % of various castes like SC/ST/OBC/General category in India and also at state level.

Census in India is carried out every 10 yrs and the last census was carried out only in 2011. As we know, there is a lot that has changed from 2011 and surely there is a change in the demographics of the various social categories in India. Last census did not collect data about OBC’s and there are various divergent views about the proportion of various castes in India.

It is in this background, I have tried to build a model based on primary enrollment data that is available in UIDSEI website which for the first time has shared enrollment by social category region wise.

In this I have taken the Enrollment report by social category which gives the details of all the categories that is General, SC, ST, OBC’s. It is a known fact now that the Gross Enrollment rate at Grade 1 is more than 90% and hence this data clearly indicates the correct proportion of people among SC/ST/OBC’s. However this is only a approximate estimate since the bifurcation of how this data is generated by UIDSEI from Ministry of Education is not known. However since it is a government department, there would be sufficient checks and balances before placing such data to public. Unlike the census, where the enumerators make the mention of the castes, here the data is submitted by the school authorities which more or less is based on some documentation maintained by them. As such, the proportion based on this data appears to be more accurate than census data. The analysis is restricted to only the UIDSEI Data and this shows some interesting patterns which no one can imagine.

Remember the caste census that was undertaken in Karnataka and not released stating various political reasons.

As per the above leaked Caste Census Report, the percentage of various castes are as under

Dalits form 19.5% of the state’s population, tribals 5%, Muslims 16%, Kurubas 7%, rest of the OBCs 16%, Lingayats 14%, Vokkaligas 11%, Brahmins 3%, Christians 3%, Buddhists and Jains together 2%, and the others account for 4%.

Now I took the primary enrollment data by social category and took the Grade 1 enrollment has the basis and also the total enrollment across all classes ( LKG to Grade 12) as a basis for estimation of the social categories. Based on this a model was build to project the SC/ST/OBC and General Category population in Karnataka.

Please note this analysis does not consider other religions like Muslims, Christians, Jain since there is no data available in UIDSEI regarding them.

General Category(11%), SC( 19%), ST(8%), OBC( 62%) is the caste wise proportion based on primary enrollment data given in UIDSEI website in Karnataka.

Now the leaked caste census put SC population at 19.5% and this analysis almost shows that the SC Population is at 19% in Karnataka. However this analysis shows a substantially higher OBC population of 62% which was assumed to be around 50% in Karnataka state. Now the UIDSEI data gives more information even at the district level. So I undertook a detailed analysis of all the districts and the analysis is shared below

Proportion of General/OBC/SC/ST based on Primary Enrollment Data — Set 1

Based on the above, it is clear that the General Population is substantially higher in Belagavi, Bangalore Urban North and Bangalore Urban South. Ballari has a very high percentage of SC + ST Population of 44%. Bagalkot ( 25%), Belagavi Chikkodi ( 21%) and Bangalore Rural ( 29%)are other districts with SC + ST population more than 20%. Except Bangalore Urban North and South, OBC population appears to be above 50% in all other districts. Surprisingly in Bagalkot and Belagavi Chikkodi, the proportion of OBCs is higher than 70%

Proportion of General/OBC/SC/ST based on Primary Enrollment Data — Set 2

Clearly from the above data, Bidar, Chamrajanagar, Chikkaballapur and Chitradurga have SC + ST Population of more than 40%. Even OBC’s proportion is also more than 50% in these districts. In Chamrajnagar and Chitradurga, SC + ST + OBC Proportion is almost 99% and in other parts it is more than 95%.

So it is becoming increasingly evident that there are many districts in Karnataka where the population of SC, ST, OBC is way beyond the 50% mark ( This is the upper limit of Reservation for SC+ ST+ OBC set by Supreme Court ). Dakshina Kannada has the second highest OBC Population by these estimates. 82% population of Dakshina Kannada is OBC

Proportion of General/OBC/SC/ST based on Primary Enrollment Data — Set 3

Kalburgi, Hassan, Kolar reflect a very high SC population. Kolar is the largest district with SC Population with a proportion of almost 31%. However in all these districts, except Dharwad, the General category population is just 3 to 4% . SC+ST+OBC population is more than 95% in all districts except Dharwad. All districts have high proportion of OBC population of more than 50%.

Proportion of General/OBC/SC/ST based on Primary Enrollment Data — Set 4

Raichur has one of the highest SC/ST Population of almost 43%. Even Mysore surprisingly has a very high ST Population of 12%. In Mysore, SC and ST form a total percentage of 31% of the population. In all the districts, SC, ST and OBC form more than 90% of the population. Even in Shivamogga, there is a very high percentage of SC population of around 20%. All this clearly indicate that the proportion of SC ST OBC Population is fairly high in Karnataka compared to what is considered earlier on.

Proportion of General/OBC/SC/ST based on Primary Enrollment Data — Set 5

Again in Vijaya Pura and Yadagiri, the SC+ST Population is higher than 20%. In Yadagiri, it is almost 99%.

Uttarakannada, with 84% OBC population is the largest district in Karnataka with OBCs.

In Vijayapura and Yadagiri, 98% of the population appears to SC, ST and OBC’s.

What are some of the Key Inferences?

Inferences from the above analysis

So we can conclude that roughly 20 to 22% of the population is SCs in Karnataka.

STs may be around 8%.

OBC population is surely more than 50%. My estimate is that it is around 60%.

SC+ST proportion is well over 30% in many districts.

SC+ST+ OBC Proportion is more than 90% in many districts except Bangalore, Belagavi and Dharwad.

Disclaimer: The analysis is done purely on Primary enrollment data released by UIDSEI.

B-Tech in Electrical Engineering from IIT Madras. PGDM from IIM Bangalore. Working as a senior IRS officer. Opinions expressed are personal and mostly academic